Thursday, 16 August 2012

Theory X vs Theory Y


Motivation, as defined by Pritchard and Ashwood, is the process used to allocate energy to maximize the satisfaction of needs.It is the psychological feature that drives a person towards his or her goals and also keeps him or her directed towards that goal.

Douglas Mcgregor published a book "The Human Side of Enterprise"  at MIT Sloan school of Management in 1960s. which  stated  two theories of motivation.From then directors,managers and CEOs have been using these theories to have a better understanding  about organizational behavior ,human resource development,organizational communication,organizational development,etc.

These two theories were Theory X and Theory Y.There are basic differences between the two styles of management thought 

Theory X:

In theory X, the management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can and that they dislike work  normally. Due to  this, management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed. The management needs  to extract  work by  incentivising ,forcing,threatening  the employees of being penalised if they dont work.A hierarchical structure is needed with narrow span of control at each and every level. 

Theory X Managers:

Michael J. Papa told  that  if the organizational goals are to be met, theory X managers rely heavily on threat and coercion to gain their employees' compliance.
The managers think that the employees are totally for money in the organization and not for anything else.They tend to blame the workers always.The reason of their failures may be something other which they do not want to see.
The major flaw of this management style is that it may  cause diseconomies of scale  in large businesses.

Theory Y:

In this theory,management assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control.They  believe that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties.They also believe that if they are given a chance,they will try to showcase their creative abilities and innovate something new to improve their productivity.

Theory Y Managers:

The manager's role with the  workers of Theory Y type  is to help them achieve their potential.This is the case in which the employees are emotionally mature and think positively of their work.Thus, they can be positively appoached by the managers for problem solving leading to improved results compared to alternative approach of authoritarian measures. 

Theory X  vs  Theory Y:


Theory X and Theory Y relates to Maslow's hierarchy of needs in how human behavior and motivation is the main priority in the workplace in order to maximize output. In relations to Theory Y the organization is trying to create the most symbiotic relationship between the managers and workers which relates to Self Actualization and Esteem. For Self Actualization the manager needs to promote the optimum workplace through morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, and acceptance of facts. It can relate to Esteem when the manager is trying to promote self esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, and respect by others.


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